Nepal is in Southern Asia, between China and India. It covers a total area of 143,351 sq km and its boundary is 2,926 km long in total, bordered by China at 1,236 km and India at 1,690 km. It is a landlocked country.
The weather and climate vary from hot summers to severe winters. Nepal has varieties of lands as it has weather and people. The land starts from 70m from sea level from Kanchan Kalan in Terai and passes through the hilly region to the world’s highest point Mount Everest at 8,850 m.
Nepal is known for its natural beauty and it has its own culture. It has more than 70 ethnic groups and more than 60 different languages are spoken in different parts of Nepal. Nepali is the national language of Nepal. People practice several religions. Till now Hinduism and Buddhism have the largest population. Kathmandu is the capital, and Nepal has 30 million people.
Newars are thought to have lived in the Nepal Valley since the 4th century AD, developing a Hindu-Buddhist culture. The Gurkha principality was later established by RAJPUT warriors from India, and in 1769 they conquered lands beyond the present-day borders of Nepal. After incursions into northern India in which the Gurkhas were defeated, Nepal lost part of its territory to British India but retained its independence and enjoyed close ties with the British.It has maintained its close association with India since the latter gained independence in 1947.
Nepal, the world’s only Hindu monarchy, was controlled by a hereditary prime ministership until 1951. The nation’s first election was held in 1959, but in 1960, King Mahendra dismissed the cabinet, dissolved parliament, and banned political parties. A 1962 constitution created a nonparty panchayat (council) system of government. After a 1980 referendum approved a modified version of the panchayat system, direct parliamentary elections were held in 1981. A dispute with India led to India’s closing of most border crossings from March 1989 to July 1990, and the resultant economic crisis fueled demands for political reform. After months of violence, King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev dissolved parliament. The opposition formed an interim government in April 1990, and a new constitution creating a constitutional monarchy and a bicameral legislature became effective on Nov. 9, 1990. Multiparty legislative elections held in May 1991 were won by the centrist Nepali Congress party; the Communists became the leading opposition party. Mid-term elections in November 1994, which were called after the government lost a parliamentary vote, resulted in a hung parliament and the communists, who emerged as the single largest party, formed a minority government.
|ca. 563 B.C.||Buddha was born in Lumbini;|
|ca. A.D.400-750||Licchavi kingdom in power in Kathmandu|
|750-1200||“Transitional” kingdom in power in Kathmandu Valley|
|1100-1484||Khasa Mall Kings rule in western Nepal|
|1200-16||Arimalla, the first monarch of the Malla Dynasty, rules in Kathmandu Valley.|
|1312||Khasa king Ripumalla leads raid in Kathmandu Valley|
|1345-46||Sultan Shams ud-din Ilyas of Bengal leads a raid in Kathmandu Valley.|
|1382-95||Jayasthitimalla rules as king of United Malla kingdom in Kathmandu Valley.|
|1428-82||Yakshamalla reigns – the height of the united Malla kingdom.|
|1484||Malla kingdom was divided; three kingdoms of Kathmandu, Bhadgaon, and Patan were established.|
|1559||Gorkha kingdom was established by Dravya Shah.|
|1606-33||Ram Shah of Gorkha reigns; the Gorkha kingdom experiences its first expansion.|
|1743||Prithvi Narayan Shah ascends to the throne of Gorkha.|
|1768-90||Gorkha conquers Kathmandu and Patan, Bhadgaon, eastern Nepal, and western Nepal.|
|1775||Prithvi Narayan Shah dies the first king of united Nepal.|
|1814-1816||The Anglo-Nepalese War and the resulting Treaty of Sagauli reduce the territory of Nepal.|
|1846||Jang Bahadur Rana takes over as prime minister and establishes hereditary Rana rule.|
|1946||The Nepali Congress Party is founded.|
|1947||The United States establishes diplomatic relations with Nepal.|
|1948||The country’s first constitution, the Government of Nepal Act, is promulgated; Prime Minister Padma Shamsher Rana resigns in the wake of opposition to the new constitution from conservative Ranas; Mohan Shamsher becomes prime minister; the constitution is suspended.|
|1950||Ranas are in open conflict with King Tribhuvan implicated in Nepali Congress Party conspiracy against Rana power, seeks and is granted asylum in India; government troops desert to the rebel side; over 140 Ranas join the dissidents. The Treaty of Peace and Friendship and Treaty of Trade and Commerce are signed with India.|
|1951||Mohan Shamsher capitulates; King Tribhuvan is restored to the throne; Mohan Shamsher heads a new coalition cabinet for 10 months; he is succeeded by Nepali Congress Party leader M.P. Koirala as prime minister;|
Nepal’s climate varies with its topography. It ranges from tropical to arctic depending upon the altitude. The Terai region, which lies in the tropical southern part of the country, for instance, has a hot, humid climate. The midland regions are pleasant almost all year round, although winter mornings and nights are cool. The northern mountain region, around an altitude above 3,353 meters has an alpine climate with a considerably lower temperature and thin air in winter as can be expected.
Nepal has four climatic seasons.
(a) Spring: March-May,
(b) Summer: June – August,
(c) Autumn: September – November and
(d) Winter: December -February.
Spring is the colourful season which is punctuated by the odd shower of life-giving rain but the heat gradually builds until the monsoon relief arrives. During summer the Monsoon; moisture-laden wind, gathers in the Bay of Bengal and sweeps up across India to spend its force on the Himalayan mountain chain. Autumn is renowned for clear skies and pleasant temperatures. By winter the high hills take dry brown shades and the mountains are occasionally dusted with fresh snow. However, due to Nepal’s vast range of diversified land orientations as well as its amazing climatic variation effects regular seasons are different and are six in Nepal.
Spring – Basanta April-May
Summer – Grishma June-July
Monsoon – Barsha Late June-Mid September
Autumn – Sharad September-November
Winter – Hinud December-January
Windy – Sisir February-March